2.19.1  Limites : limit

limit compute the limit of an expression in a finite or infinite point. It is also possible with an optional argument to compute unidirectional limit (1 for right limit and -1 for left limit .
limit takes three or four arguments :
an expression, the name of a variable (for example x), the limit point (for example a) and an optional argument, by default 0, to indicate if the limit is unidirectional. This argument is equal to -1 for a left limit (x<a) or is equal to 1 for a right limit (x>a) or is equal to 0 for a limite.
limit returns the limit of the expression when the variable (for example x) approachs the limit point (for example a).
Remark
It is also possible to put x=a as argument instead of x,a, hence : limit takes also as arguments an expression depending of a variable, an equality (variable =value of the limit point) and perhaps 1 or -1 to indicate the direction.
Input :

limit(1/x,x,0,-1)

or

limit(1/x,x=0,-1)

Output :

-(infinity)

Input :

limit(1/x,x,0,1)

or

limit(1/x,x=0,1)

Output :

+(infinity)

Input :

limit(1/x,x,0,0)

or

limit(1/x,x,0)

or

limit(1/x,x=0)

Output :

infinity

Hence, abs(1/x) approachs +∞ when x approachs 0.

Exercises :

• Find for n>2, the limit when x approachs 0 of :
 ntan(x)−tan(nx) sin(nx)−nsin(x)
Input :
limit((n*tan(x)-tan(n*x))/(sin(n*x)-n*sin(x)),x=0)
Output :
2
• Find the limit when x approachs +∞ of :
 √
x+ √
x+ x
 x
Input :
limit(sqrt(x+sqrt(x+sqrt(x)))-sqrt(x),x=+infinity)
Output :
1/2
• Find the limit when x approachs 0 of :
 1+x+x2/2
−exp(x/2)
(1−cos(x))sin(x)
Input :
limit((sqrt(1+x+x`^`2/2)-exp(x/2))/((1-cos(x))*sin(x)),x,0)
Output :
-1/6

Remark
To compute limit, it is better sometimes to quote the first argument.
Input :

limit(’(2*x-1)*exp(1/(x-1))’,x=+infinity)

Note that the first argument is quoted, because it is better that this argument is not simplified (i.e. not evaluated).
Output :

+(infinity)